In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.  

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

by John McCrae (Canadian physician Lieutenant-Colonel)

Written May 3, 1915 after the battle at Ypres, by Maj. (Dr.) John McCrae of the 1st Field Artillery Brigade. Published in “Punch”, December 8, 1915 — Excerpt from “Welcome to Flanders Fields – The Great Canadian Battle of the Great War: Ypres, 1915”, by Daniel G. Dancocks, McClelland and Stewart (Toronto, Canada), 1988. pages 250, 251 – Epilogue

Although he had been a doctor for years and had served in the South African War, it was impossible to get used to the suffering, the screams, and the blood here, and then Major John McCrae had seen and heard enough in his dressing station to last him a lifetime. As a surgeon attached to the 1st Field Artillery Brigade, Major McCrae, who had joined the McGill faculty in 1900 after graduating from the University of Toronto, had spent seventeen days treating injured men — Canadians, British, Indians, French, and Germans — in the Ypres salient. It had been an ordeal that he had hardly thought possible. McCrae later wrote of it: I wish I could embody on paper some of the varied sensations of that seventeen days….. Seventeen days of Hades! At the end of the first day if anyone had told us we had to spend seventeen days there, we would have folded our hands and said it could not have been done.(1) One death particularly affected McCrae. A young friend and former student, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer of Ottawa, had been killed by a shell burst on 2 May. Lieutenant Helmer was buried later that day in the little cemetery outside McCrae’s dressing station, and McCrae had performed the funeral ceremony in the absence of the chaplain. The next day, sitting on the back of an ambulance parked near the dressing station beside the Canal de l’Yser, just a few hundred yards north of Ypres, McCrae vented his anguish by composing a poem. The major was stranger to writing, having authored several medical texts besides dabbling in poetry. In the nearby cemetery, McCrae could see the wild poppies that sprang up in the ditches in that part of Europe, and he spent twenty minutes of precious rest time scribbling fifteen lines of verse in a notebook (2).

A young soldier watched him write it. Cyril Allinson, a twenty-two year old sergeant-major, was delivering mail that day when he spotted McCrae. The Major looked up as Allinson approached, then went on writing while the sergeant-major stood there quietly. “His face was very tired but calm as he wrote,” Allinson recalled. “He looked around from time to time, his eyes straying to Helmer’s grave.” When he finished five minutes later, he took his mail from Allinson and, without saying a word, handed his pad to the young NCO.

Allinson was moved by what he read: The poem was exactly an exact description of the scene in front of us both. The word blow was not used in the first line though it was used later when the poem later appeared in Punch. But it was used in the second last line. He used the word blow in that line because the poppies actually were being blown that morning by a gentle east wind. It never occurred to me at that time that it would ever be published. It seemed to me just an exact description of the scene (3).

In fact, it was very nearly not published. Dissatisfied with it, McCrae tossed the poem away, but a fellow officer — either Lt.-Col. Edward Morrison, the former Ottawa newspaper editor who commanded the 1st Brigade of artillery (4), or Lt.-Col. J.M. Elder (5), depending on which source is consulted — retrieved it and sent it to newspapers in England. “The Spectator,” in London, rejected it, but “Punch” published it on 8 December 1915. McCrae’s “In Flanders Fields” remains to this day one of the most memorable war poems ever written. It is a lasting legacy of the terrible battle in the Ypres salient in the spring of 1915.

  • (1) Bassett, John, page 44, “John McCrae.” Markham: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1984.
  • (2) Public Archives Canada (Ottawa), now the National Archives of Canada, MG30 E209, biographical note by Gertrude Hickmore.
  • (3) Mathieson, William D, page 264. “My Grandfather’s War.” Toronto: Macmillan, 1981.
  • (4) Public Archives Canada (Ottawa), now the National Archives of Canada, MG30 EI33, volume 4, “Origin of `In Flanders Fields.”
  • (5) “Canadian Daily Record,” 5/3/19.